Volume 71, Issue 2 p. 407-435

Culturally intelligent supervisors: Inclusion, intercultural cooperation, and psychological safety

Yuka Fujimoto

Corresponding Author

Yuka Fujimoto

Department of Management, Sunway University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia


Yuka Fujimoto, Department of Management, Sunway University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

Email: [email protected]

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Alfred Presbitero

Alfred Presbitero

Department of Management, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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First published: 16 May 2021
Citations: 1


By integrating the cultural intelligence (CQ) and diversity/inclusion literature, we attempt to make a dual contribution to the literature by understanding how subordinates' perceptions of their supervisors' CQ may enhance their intercultural cooperation via their individual psychological climate for inclusion. We further examine the role of minority members' psychological safety as a result of perceived supervisor CQ and psychological climate for inclusion. To explore these processes, we conducted three studies. Based on social processing and social learning theories, we empirically tested the relationship between perceived supervisor CQ and subordinates' intercultural cooperation and initially determined the role of one of the three dimensions of psychological climate for inclusion (i.e. integration of differences) (Study 1: two-waves; N = 316). To address the data limitation and to expand the framework (i.e. adding in the other dimensions of psychological climate), we conducted Study 2 (two-waves; N = 173). We further extended the framework to include psychological safety and obtained two-waves of data from ethnic minority members in Study 3 (N = 155). Our results supported our predictions offering novel insights into why CQ matters for supervisors of culturally diverse work units and clarify the various mechanisms on how supervisors' CQ influences intercultural cooperation in those units.


The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.


The data that support the findings of this study are available upon request by qualified scientists. The data are not publicly available due to privacy or ethical restrictions.